2019/05/14

35. European Elections 2019, industry, environment and lack of information



More maps and data about the European Union


European elections of 2018: New challenges for the European Union

There is a breach among EU bureaucracies and many social groups in several European countries. European Union is a good club of countries if the breach is overcome. More information, better economic and social policies are necessary.

Industry and economic crisis in Europe:

It is important to foster industrial development in many European countries. The commercial policies addressed to foster foreign trade with other countries should be compatible with a sound policy in order to avoid stagnation of industry in many European countries. On the other hand it is also important to favour tecnologies and policies addressed to diminish the environmental negative impact of some industries.
Switzerland is a country with very high levels of industrial development, higher than Germany and the United States,  and with less contamination than those countries, is a positive example of environmental technology and policies.

The following graphs present a comparison of Real Value-added of Industrial Production, in year 2015, expressed in Euros at constant prices of year 2010. Source: Elaborated by Guisan(2019) from OECD statistics. Data of real value-adde per capita in year 2015 is expressed as QHI15 of country i (i=es, it, fr, uk, de, usa) for Spain, Italy, France, United Kindom, Germany and the United States.

 1.  D05T09:  Mining and quarrying [B]

In sector 1. the values are below 600 Euros per capita in these 4 EU countries and higher than 1200 in the United States.

2, D10T12:  Food products, beverages and tobacco



In sector 2 the values are very alike in the 6 countries, with the highest value in France.



3. D13T15:  Textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related prodcuts

   In sector 3, the most outstanding value corresponds to Italy, with nearly 400 Euros per capita, while the other countries have values lower than 150.



4. D16T18:  Wood and paper products, and printing
   The highest values of sector 4 correspond to the USA and Germany and the lowest to Spain and France.

 5. D19T23:  Chemical, rubber, plastics, fuel products and other non-metallic mineral products
    D24T25:  Basic metals and fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
   
In sector 5, there is a great difference between the values of the USA and Germany and those of the other 4 countries.
In sector 6 the highest values correspond to Germany and Italy

 7. D26T28:  Machinery and equipment

In sector 7 the values of Germany (with nearly 2000 Euros per capita) and the USA (with more than 1200) are very high in comparison with the other 4 countries.

    8. D29T30:  Transport equipment
In sector 8 the most outstanding country in the graph is Germany, with nearly 1600 Euros per capita.

    9, D31T33:  Furniture; other manufacturing; repair and installation of machinery and equipment


In sector 9, Germany and France present the highest values among these 6 countries.
  
D35T39:  Electricity, gas and water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities [D-E
Finally in sector 10 the most outstanding country is germany, followed by the USA.

A summary:

Graph 11 shows the sum of these variables, as to say the total real value-added o Industry per capita  of this 6 countries and Switzerland (CH).
                                              Graph 11. Real Value-Added per capita of Industry year 2015 
                                                             (Euros at 2010 precies and exchange rates.
It is really impressive the high value of real value-added  per capita of Industry in Switzerland.

Comparison of  CO2 per capita in countries of graph 11,
Table 12 shows the evolution of contamination by CO2 per capita (Tm) in 9 countries, together with World average and values of European Union 28. 

Table. CO2 per capita in 7 OECD country, India, China, World and EU28 (Tm per inhabitant)

De
Es
Fr
It
UK
USA
CH
In
Cn
World
EU28
1970
13.553
3.737
9.101
5.888
11.999
21.097
6.633
0.416
1.164
4.235
9.744
1975
13.275
5.049
8.964
6.385
11.009
20.633
6.302
0.443
1.343
4.276
9.861
1980
14.316
5.634
9.341
7.066
10.811
20.899
6.802
0.474
1.644
4.434
10.539
1985
13.717
5.070
7.108
6.745
10.150
19.431
7.008
0.606
1.813
4.110
9.749
1990
12.92
5.87
6.70
7.52
10.16
19.79
6.85
0.75
1.99
4.270

1995
11.16
6.38
6.49
7.64
9.48
19.88
6.42
0.91
2.69
4.157

2000
10.53
7.62
6.70
8.03
9.32
20.76
6.30
1.00
2.83
4.216

2005
10.22
8.35
6.70
8.40
9.22
19.88
6.41
1.11
4.73
4.605

2010
10.09
6.11
6.05
7.10
7.87
17.81
5.96
1.50
6.70
4.887

2015
9.64
5.70
5.09
5.90
6.16
16.07
4.83
1.87
7.73
4.931

Source: Elaborated by Guisan(2019) from statistics of:  EDGARv4.2FT2012, European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), release version 4.2. http://edgar.jrc.ec.europe.eu, 2014

In year 2015 the lowest value among industrialized countries correspond to Switzerland, with a value of 4.83 slightly below World average, in spite of its highest value of industry per capita. Some countries like Spain, France, Italy and the UK have values of CO2 per capita slighty over World. China with 7.73, Germany with 9.64 and the USA with 16-07 have very high values. 

Industrial and environmental policies in Europe and  in the World.

European Policies since year 2019 should increase industrial development in many EU countries, due to their positive effects on development and employment in other sectors. Those policies should be combined with environmental protection, in order to diministh the emissions of CO2 per capital. 

Regarding the increase of CO2 in the World for the period 1970 to 2015, we have calculated that only a 13% was due to the increase in CO2 per capita and 87% to the increase of population.
Given that accordingly to Guisan, Aguayo and Exposito(2001) and other studies, the educational level of population is one of the most important factors in order to avoid excessive increases of population, the main conclusion is that diminution of CO2 emission, compatible with industrialization at World level, requires to increase the educational level of population and also to favor financing of environmental policies.
Selected readings:
Guisan, Aguayo and Exposito(2001) Economic growth and cycles: Cross-country models of Education, Industry and Fertility and International Comparisons, Applied Econometrics and International Development Vol. 1-1.
Guisan and Exposito(2018).  Economic Development Problems And Crisis In The European Union, 2005-2015  Applied Econometrics and International Development Vol. 18-2.


2018/10/09

34. Notable Women researchers on Economic Develolpment



Contributions of our Association to the visibility of Notable Women Economists:
In this Blog and in our journal "Applied Econometrics and International Development" we will contribute to foster visibility of Notable Women Economists in several fields, particularly in Economic Development. We expect to update the information with new discoveries.

As a first approach to this question we present a list of 17 Notable Women with the following features:
1) They are included in the Top 5% authors by a mean of several  criteria of the general Score of Ideas.Repec (citations, number of works, dissemination of works thorugh on line downloads).

2) They are included in the list of economists with 5 or more Working Papers in the field of "development" (DEV) accordingly to the NEP classification of Ideas.Repec 

3) They are included in the list of authors with more article downloads at Ideas.Repec.


17 Notable Women researchers on Economic Development

NOTABLE WOMAN ECONOMISTS
Rank

Art

down
Rank

List

Score
 Institution
16
11
Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
8
3
Princeton, New Jersey (USA)
CROPPER, Maureen L.
17
15
University of Maryland, College Park (USA) RFF Washington, DC (USA)
2
1
Economics Research, World Bank Group, Washington DC (USA)
DUFLO, Esther
8
2
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (USA)
7
8
NBER), Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA).Yale University, New Haven,CT (USA)
6
6
Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), London, UK
1
12
Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain
4
7
Wharton School of Business, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA)
12
14
Department of Economics, Oxford University, Oxford, UK
9
16
14
13
Economics Research, World Bank Group, Washington D.C. (USA)
13
17
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Germany
5
4
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (USA)
11
9
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (USA)
3
5
 London Business School (LBS), London, UK
15
10
CARESS, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (USA)
Source: Elaborated by the Euro-American Association of Economic Development Studies, October 2018, accordingly to

Some recent publications, free downloadable, by these women researchers are the following ones:

  1. Wiji ArulampalamAlison Booth and Mark Bryan (2006)
CEPR Discussion Papers from Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National Universit
  1. Anne Case & Angus Deaton, 2017. "Mortality and Morbidity in the 21st Century," Working Papers2017-spring, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..

3.     H. Ron Chan & B. Andrew Chupp & Maureen L. Cropper & Nicholas Z. Muller, 2015. "The Impact of Trading on the Costs and Benefits of the Acid Rain Program," NBER Working Papers 21383, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

4.     Demirguc-Kunt,Asli & Klapper,Leora & Singer,Dorothe, 2017. "Financial inclusion and inclusive growth : a review of recent empirical evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 8040, The World Bank.


  1. Esther Duflo, 2011. "Women's Empowerment and Economic Development," NBER Working Papers 17702, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

6.     Demirguc-Kunt,Asli & Klapper,Leora & Singer,Dorothe, 2017. "Financial inclusion and inclusive growth : a review of recent empirical evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 8040, The World Bank.

  1. Rachel Griffith & Martin O'Connell & Kate Smith, 2014. "The importance of product reformulation versus consumer choice in improving diet quality," IFS Working Papers W14/15, Institute for Fiscal Studies.

8.     Guisan, Maria-Carmen, 2014. "World Development, 2000-2010: Production, Investment And Savings In 21 Areas Of America, Africa, Asia-Pacific, Europe And Eurasia," Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 14(2).

9.     Ann Harrison, 2018. "International trade: Who is left behind and what to do about it," CDP Background Papers 045, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.

10.  Javorcik, Beata S., 2014. "Does FDI bring good jobs to host countries ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6936, The World Bank.

11.  Truong P. Truong & Claudia Kemfert, 2010. "WIATEC: A World Integrated Assessment Model of Global Trade Environment and Climate Change," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1021, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.


12.  Leora Klapper & Frederic Meunier & Laura Diniz, 2014. "Entrepreneurship around the World--Before, During, and After the Crisis," World Bank Other Operational Studies 21467, The World Bank.


13.  Abeliansky, Ana Lucia & Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada, 2018. "The relationship between the Chinese "going out" strategy and international trade," Economics Discussion Papers 2018-20, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).


14.  McGrattan, Ellen R., 2016. "China’s Foreign Investment," Economic Policy Paper 16-9, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.


15. Norbert Schady & Jere Behrman & Maria Caridad Araujo & Rodrigo Azuero & Raquel Bernal & David Bravo & Florencia López Bóo & Karen Macours & Daniela Marshall & Christina Paxson & Renos Vakis, 2014. "Wealth Gradients in Early Childhood Cognitive Development in Five Latin American Countries," PIER Working Paper Archive 14-010, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania

16. Domenico Giannone & Michele Lenza & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2008. "Business Cycles in the Euro Area," NBER Working Papers 14529, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

17.         Todd, Petra E., 2012. "Effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving women's employability and quality of work : a critical review," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6189, The World Bank.



Goals of this post: We try to contribute to the international visibility of the works of Women researchers in Economics, particularly those studies of special interest for socio-economic development at World level. Our Euro-American Association of Economic Development Studies, has devoted, for the period 2001-2018, many efforts to contribute to foster visibility of Women researchers in the field of Economic Development and in other fields of Economics.

This table present a list of 17 Notable Women Economists, with outstanding results in the rankings of the international Website of academic research Ideas.Repec. Thre first column of rank indicates the position accordingly to the number of downloads of articles corresponding to each author in this list and the second column indicates the position of each author in this list accordingly to the general score of Ideas.Repec.  The highest position is number 1. 

These 17 female authors are included among top 5% researchers out of more than 50000 Economics researchers, from all over the World,  at Ideas.Repec.  The distribution by countries is as follows:
United States: 10
United Kingdom: 3
Germany: 2
Spain: 1
Australia: 1

Problems: It is well known that there are some hostile actitudes towards the role of Women on Economics research, and that several important institutions and associations have created special committees to deal with this important problem. In our view some unfriendly behaviours are the following ones:

1) Lack of gender statistics. In this regard we welcome the initiative of the United Nations to foster concern on this question.
2) Lack of women citation on several Encyclopedias: Wikipedia includes around 1000 authors in "Economists Lists", of which only 5.2% are Women. Britannica includes an entry with 241 economists, with only 15 Women (6.2%). Both percentages are clearly below the percentage of Women on the Top 10% Economics researchers (around 20% of more than 5000 authors included in the top 10% of more than 50000 Economics researchers registered at the international Website Ideas.Repec.
3) Lack of enough distinctions to the most qualified women in many books, medals, television news, and other means of communication.


Women economists in Spain: 15 Pioneers, Supervisors of Doctoral Dissertations and Top Researchers

In Spain the percentage of Female Economists, at Doctorate level or as Supervisors of Theses, has evolved from almos nul values in before 1975, until relatively high values near to 40% in many cases.
In spite of the outstanding role of several women on Economics research, there is unfortunately scarce visibility in Prizes, TV and other ways of communication in social means.


This study is free downloadable at Ideas.Repec and presents an interesting study of the most outstanding Female Economists as Pioneers, Supervisors of Doctoral Theses and Top Researchers (by downloads and citations). The 15th pioneers as Doctoral supervisors appears at tht Entry 61 of our Blog of Spanish economy: