2018/03/17

30. Selected readings on Women economics by the Euro-American Associations, 2001-2017




Selected readings on Women´s Social Participation and Employment published by our Association. Picture source: European Women´s Lobby

Entry written by Maria-Carmen Guisan, Professor of Applied Economics at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain).
 I include some selected contents of the articles published by Guisan and Aguayo(2011) and Guisan and Exposito(2011).related with Women ´s social participation and employment. Besides, I am glad to include links to interesting articles published in our journals RSES and AEID, for the period  2010-2017, related with Women´s Economics and accesible at Ideas.Repec. Besides I include a link to interesting News on the Research Activities of Women economists.
 Selected contents of the article by Guisan, M.C. and Exposito, P.(2011)

 REGIONAL EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT BY GENDER IN SPAIN IN COMPARISON WITH OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies, Vol. 11-1.
 Table 4 presents a comparison of the rates of employment in Services sectors, among Spain, Germany and the United States. Table A5 presents the distribution by gender and sector in 25 countries of the European Union (E
find the following results regarding the rates of sectoral employment


Table 4. Employment rates in Services in Spain, Germany and the USA
(number of employments per one thousand inhabitants)
Services sectors
USA
Germany
Spain
Commerce
71
71
63
Hotel and Restaurants
33
22
28
Transport and Communications
27
26
24
Financial Services
24
15
8
Business Services
61
65
35
Public Administration
29
32
30
Education
42
28
21
Health
58
50
25
Other social and personal
33
26
18
Domestic
3
8
11
All Services
381
343
263
Source: Elaborated by Guisan and Exposito from OECD National Accounts: years 2005 and 2006.
 

Tabla A5: Distribution by economic branches of male and female employment in Spain, Germany and 25 European Union countries (EU25).
Sector
% of male 
employment
% of female employment
EU25
Germany
Spain
EU25
Germany
Spain
Public Administration
7.2
7.8
6.5
7.3
7.7
6.0
Agriculture
5.2
2.6
5.8
3.8
1.6
3.3
Commerce retail
6.3
5.3
6.0
12.5
12.9
14.3
Commerce wholesale
4.1
3.9
4.2
2.6
2.6
2.5
Construction
13.0
10.6
19.5
1.5
1.9
1.7
Culture and Sport
..
..
..
2.1
1.8
2.1
Domestic Services
..
..
..
2.3
1.0
8.2
Education
3.8
3.3
3.4
11.4
8.6
9.6
Business services
6.1
5.9
5.2
7.3
8.2
8.9
Financial Services
..
..
..
2.2
2.5
1.6
Hotels and Restaurantes
3.4
2.8
5.5
5.1
4.6
9.4
Industry: food+metal+machinery
8.3
10.8
7.1
2.2
2.8
  2.1
Health and social services
4.0
10.6
2.6
17.2
18.5
10.9
Trasnport by land
4.2
2.4
4.4
..
..
..
Sales and reparations vehicles
3.2
3.5
3.1
..
..
..
Sum of 15 activities
68.8
69.5
73.3
77.5
74.7
80.6
Other activities
31.2
30.5
26.7
22.5
25.3
19.4
Total
100
100
100
100
100
100
 Source:Elaborated from EU(2008). Distribution of Employment in the main NACE 2-digit sectors

We find that there are 100 employments per one thousand people in Health
and Education in the United States, 78 in Germany and only 46 in Spain.
Countries with high levels of industry, like Germany and USA, favors the
development of Services. Spain needs to foster industrial development
 in order to provide resources for the development of services particularly
in social services like Health and Education. The sectors with highest
percentages of male employment are "Construction" (with more than 10%),
 "Industry: food+metal+machinery" (with percentages between 7.1% and
 10.8%), and "Public Admiistration". The sectors with highest percentages
 of female employment are "Health and Social Services" (between 10.9%
 and 18.5%), "Commerce retail" (between 12.5% and 14.3%), and
 "Education" (between 8.6% and 11.4%).
 Selected contents of the article by Guisan, M.C. and Aguayo. E.(2011). 
WOMEN PARTICIPATION, QUALITY OF GOVERNMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPE, 2000-2007

The article analyzes women participation in decision making and several
 positive relationships between the educational level of population, quality of 
government, women empowerment and quality of life (satisfaction with life).

Tabla 3. Data and suggestions about women in media
Data:
1) There are four men for every woman who gets media coverage in the EU.
2) Women are central to a NEWS story 10% of the time.
3) Women make up 6% of experts and 14% of spokespersons on the news.
4) 10% of POLITICIANS in the news are female. In Italy and Portugal only 2%.
5) In European news, women are three times as likely as men to be identified in terms of their family status.
6) Women represent one third of main TV and FILM characters.
7) Women athletes secure between 2-9% of TV airtime devoted to SPORTS.
8) Women represent 27% of employees or professionals shown in ADVERTS, but 60% of those portrayed doing housework or looking after children.
9) Adverts showing boys place them outside of the house 85% of the time; those featuring girls place them more than half of the time inside the home.
10) Up to 34 years old, women represent 79% of TV PRESENTERS; over 50, they are only 7%.
Our suggestions: It is very urgent to favour the presence of qualified women, not only as journalists and directors of media, but also as advisors, experts interviewed and main protagonists in the news.
Source: Suggestions by Guisan and Aguayo(2011) and data from EWL(2010).




Table 4. Indicators of  16 European countries and 3 North American countries.
País
GEM08
SWL2F
GDP pc
Tyr
Voice
Gov.
Effect.
Dinamarca
0.8870
264
34.905
10.02
8.14
9.42
Norway
0.9150
260
49.359
11.41
8.06
9.24
Sweden
0.9250
259
34.090
9.75
7.94
9.16
USA
0.7690
253
43.055
10.70
7.18
8.24
Austria
0.7480
251
35.537
10.32
7.78
8.46
Switzerland
0.8290
249
37.581
10.56
8.10
9.48
Finland
0.8920
246
33.324
9.49
7.98
8.88
Netherlands
0.8720
246
36.956
10.37
8.06
8.60
Canada
0.8290
244
36.260
10.16
7.72
8.84
UK
0.7860
244
33.717
9.71
7.76
8.54
Ireland
0.7270
241
41.036
9.91
7.80
8.34
Germany
0.8520
239
33.181
10.17
7.80
8.36
France
0.7800
239
31.625
9.71
7.54
7.60
Mexico
0.6030
234
13.307
6.80
4.96
5.26
Belgium
0.8410
231
33.399
9.96
7.88
8.18
Spain
0.8250
229
28.536
9.61
7.10
7.00
Portugal
0.7410
223
21.169
8.81
7.50
6.76
Italy
0.7340
223
28.682
9.89
7.24
5.66
Greece
0.6910
208
26.928
8.94
6.92
5.96
Notes: GEM08=Gender Empowerment of UN. SWL2F= Satisfaction with life elaborated from Mark
 et al. GDP per capita=Gross Domestic Product per head in year 2008, in thousand Dollars at 2005
 prices and Purchasing Power Parities from WB(2010). Total Years of Schooling (average
 years of schooling of adult population) elaborated from data of Barro and Lee and own estimations.
 Voice of citizens and Government Effectiveness elaborated from data by Kaufman et 
al(2008) by conversion of the original scale -2.5 to 2.5 to a scale 0 to 10.
 Articles in English on Women´s Economics
Journals RSES (Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies)
and AEID (Applied Econometrics and International Developmen 
Year 2017 RSES 17-2
 Microfinance and Women Empowerment- Empirical Evidence from a panel of
 Indian states  for the period 2007 to 2014,  Saravanan, S., Dash, D.P.  Abstract 
The Role Of Women In The Early Years Of The Canning Industry In Spain, Abreu, L.F. Abstract
Year 2014 RSES 14-3
Girl Power? An analysis Of Peer Effects Using Exogenous Changes  In The 
Gender Make-Up of the peer group. Proud , S. Abstract
Is Gender Bias a Cost of Failure Issue?. Marín, C.; Rosa, A. Abstract
Family and Education: A Gender Approach for Young Adults at ages 16 to 
25 in Spain from  2002 to 2013Cañada-Vicinay, J.A. Abstract 
Exploring the role of Labour Market Uncertainty in Explaining Differences in 
Rates of Return  to Education in Europe. Dávia, M.A.; McGuinness, S.; 
O´Connell, P.J. Abstract 
Employment Opportunities in Spain: Gender Differences by Education and 
ICT usage. Gómez, N.; Tobarra, M.A.; López, L.A Abstract
The employability of Mexican university students: An analysis by gender and 
 training areas.  Contreras, A.B.; Dávalos, S.; Gónzalez-Morales, O.; 
Álvarez-González, J.A.Abstract 
Year 2013.RSES Vol. 13-2
Employment by Sector and Gender in European and Spanish Regions, 1995-2012, 
Guisan,M.C., Aguayo, E. Abstract 
 010.
Regional Employment and Unemployment by Gender in Spain in comparison with 
other European CountriesGuisán, M.C. and Expósito, P. Abstract
AEID.Vol. 11-1
Women Participation, Quality of Government and Economic Development in Europe, 
2000-2007, Guisan, M.C., Aguayo, E.   Abstract
Year 2010. AEID  Vol. 10-2
Education, Gender Equality, Social Well-Being and Economic Development in American Countries, 2000-2010, Guisan, M.C. and Aguayo, E. Abstract

Website with access to journal articles and Blogs published by the Euro-American Association of Economic 
Development Studies: http://www.usc.es/economet/eaat.htm